Scrotal filariasis in a Caucasian child in Greece

Adelais Tzortzopoulou, Panagiota Giamarellou, Aikaterini Michail-Strangia, Alexander Passalides

Abstract


Lymphatic filariasis is very rare in Greece, despite her geographical position. Only a few cases about
affected young men and children have been published during the last century. We report a 2-year-old
Caucasian boy presented to our emergency department with a painless swelling in the right scrotum
during the last 10 days. Neither fever nor discomfort was reported. In the clinical examination, the
right scrotum was hard but painless. An ultrasound and a computed tomography (CT) scan showed a
mass (d 2.04 x 1.34x 2.48 cm) in the right epididymis and it was thought to be a solid tumor of
epididymis. A decision of an exploratory scrotal surgery was made and a right orchiectomy was
performed. The histological examination showed that here were a lot of eosinophil, lymphocytes and
some parasites, namely Wuchereria bancrofti in the parenchyma of both testis and epididymis. Then
some more specific blood tests were done, which were negative for filariasis, and it was decided that
chemotherapy was not needed. In a follow-up period of one and two years after the surgery, all the
tests (blood tests and CT scan) were normal and the child had a normal everyday life. Sometimes
some clinical cases in children could be tricky. In Europe, such parasitic diseases, as filariasis, are
very rare and their diagnosis is difficult for even an experienced pediatric surgeon.


Keywords


Lymphatic filariasis; children; Wuchereria bancrofti.

Full Text:

PDF

References


World Health Organization. Tropical diseases, Lymphatic filariasis 2016, http://www.who.int/gho/neglected_diseases/lymphatic_filariasis/en/

Ho CC, Ideris N. Testicular mass: do not forget filariasis. Infection. 2013;41(4):893-96.

Shenoy RK, Bocarie MJ. Lymphatic filariasis in children: clinical features,

infection burdens and future prospects for elimination. Parasitology. 2011;138(12):1559-68.

Diakou A, Kapantaidakis E, Tamvakis A, Giannakis V, Strus N. Dirofilaria infections in dogs in different areas of Greece. Parasit Vectors. 2016;9(1):508.

Brandao E, Bonfim C, Alves A, Oliveira C, Montenegro CE, Costa T, et al. Lymphatic filariasis among children and adolescents: spatial identification via socioenvironmental indicators to define priority

areas for elimination. Int Health. 2015;7(5):324-31.

Witt C, Ottesen EA. Lymphatic filariasis: an infection of childhood. Trop Med Int Health. 2001;6(8):582-606.

Chesnaia CB, Vlaminck J, Kunyu-Shako B, Pion SD, Awaca-Uvon NP, Weil GJ, et al. Measurement of Circulating Filarial Antigen Levels in Human Blood with a Point-of-Care Test Strip and a PortableSpectrodensitometer. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2016;94(6):1324-29.

Mandal NN, Bal MS, Das MK, Achary KG, Kar SK. Lymphatic filariasis in children: age dependent revpalence in an area of India endemic for Wuchereria bancrofti infection. Trop Biomed. 2010;27(1):41-46.

Chaubal NG, Pradhan GM, Chaubal JN, Ramani SK. Dance of live adult filarial worms is a reliable sign of scrotal filarial infection. J Ultrasound Med.

;22(8):765-69.

Kshirsagar NA, Gogtay NJ, Garg BS, Deshmukh PR, Rajgor DD, Kadam VS, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of treatment with single doses of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and DEC plus albendazole (ABZ) for three consecutive years in lymphatic filariasis: a field study in India. Parasitol

Res. 2017;116(10):2683-94.

Smith ME, Singh BK, Michael E. Assessing endgame strategies for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis: A model-based evaluation of the impact of DEC-mediated salt. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):7386.

World Health Organization. Summary of global update on preventive chemotherapy implementation in 2016: crossing the billion. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2017; 92(40): 589-608.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14534/j-pucr.2018645049

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Indexing/Abstracting

DOAJ, Tübitak/Ulakbim Turkish Medical Database, Academic OneFile, Health Reference Center Academic, US National Library of Medicine (NLM) Catalog, INDEX COPERNICUS, Genamics-JournalSeek, DRJI, J-Gate, Google Scholar,  Research Bible, Cross Ref, EZB (Electronic Journals Library), OCLC-WorldCat, Turkiye Citation Index, Ulrichsweb, CNKI Scholar, Journal Index, SCIARY (Worldwide Science Educational Library), BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine), Scientific Indexing Services (SIS), CiteFactor RPIOpen Access Library (OAL), JournalTOCs, HINARI, NAIST, ICMJE, PubsHub, AcademicKeys, OAJI, OpenAIRE, Norwegian Social Science Data Services (NSD), Turk Medline, Publons, JIFACTOR, ROAD, SHERPA-ROMEO, AE Global Index, ESJI, SJFinder, InfoBase Index, Pubget, SciLit, Journal Finder, Pak Academic Search (PAS), NYU Health Sciences Library, BIU Santé, Science Library Index, IP Indexing, Ingenta Connect

ICV 2016: 91.10/ CGIJ OAJI: 0.351/ IBI Factor 2015: 2.4/ IPI Value 2.82

Creative Commons License
Pediatric Urology Case Reports is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.